Department of Curriculum and Instruction

Interim Department Head: Dr. Christie Calhoun, cfcalhoun@jsu.edu 

The Department of Curriculum & Instruction offers Master of Science in Education (MSE) degrees in Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, Early Childhood Special Education, Special Education Collaborative Teacher, and Reading Specialist for those who already hold initial certification.  We also offer an alternative route for receiving a Master of Science in Education degree for those who have a bachelor's degree outside of education.  The Alternative Class A Master of Science in Education (MSE) programs include Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, and Special Education Collaborative Teacher.  These alternative programs are designed to fully equip candidates to be effective educators.

Early Childhood Education

ECE 500  Materials and Methods  (3)  

Twenty-first century instructional processes, program, and strategies for teaching and learning in P-3 classrooms.

ECE 501  Behavior and Development in Early Childhood  (3)  

Physical, emotional, intellectual, and social components of development, their interrelationships and their effect on later functioning; psychological principles.

ECE 507  Assessment in Early Childhood Education  (3)  

Review the use of assessment procedures which are developmentally appropriate for the use in early childhood education. This course is cross-listed with EED 522, and only one may be taken for credit.

ECE 510  Early Childhood Math and Science for the 21st Century  (3)  

This course will acquaint graduate candidates with methods, materials, and developmentally appropriate practice to integrate 21st century tools in teaching math and science for P-3 students.

ECE 512  Practicum in Early Childhood Special Education  (3)  

Practicum experiences working with the young handicapped child, ages infancy to eight.

ECE 513  Individualization of Education for Young Children  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Approval of instructor.

Methods and procedures for individualizing instruction.

ECE 530  Practicum for Young Children  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Corequisite(s): EED 511, EED 512, and EED 513.

Theory, school design, scheduling, and equipment. A practicum is required.

ECE 533  Enhancing Learning Through Children's Literature  (3)  

Corequistes: EED 530, RDG 520 and RDG 521. Techniques and strategies to utilize children's literature to enhance the early childhood curriculum. ECE 533 is cross-listed with EED 533 and only one course may be counted for credit.

ECE 539  Teaching Writing in Early Childhood Education  (3)  

Theories, methods, and current research involving writing instruction; emphasis on P-3.

ECE 540  Intervention in the Early Childhood Classroom  (3)  

Theory and research-based practices used in early childhood education and early education special education. Emphasis on strategies to plan developmentally appropriate activities for all children.

ECE 545  Literacy Interventions in the Early Childhood Classroom  (3)  

Current trends in assessing literacy development and providing intervention in identified problems will be addressed in this course. Theories, assessments, and strategies used in reading and writing interventions for emerging and beginning readers and writers who may be at risk for difficulties in language literacy will be discussed. These strategies include, but are not limited to, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. The development of individualized and small group reading programs designed to match student needs will be addressed. Assessments such as running records, spelling inventories, evaluating writing samples, and interpreting test scores such as DIBELS and Global Scholar will also be discussed.

ECE 631  Teacher as Researcher/Issues and Trends in ECE  (3)  

Exploration of current research and issues and trends in early childhood education; review and comparison of selected teacher research projects, and examination of the concept and practice of teacher research as a strategy to build school collaboration and strengthen the professional role of teachers. ECE 631 is cross-listed with EED 631 and only one course may be counted for credit.

ECE 642  Professional Publications in Early Childhood Education  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): ECE 631.

Opportunity for students to develop and refine professional writing skills. ECE 642 is cross-listed with EED 642 and only one course may be counted for credit.

Elementary Education

EED 509  Advanced Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning  (3)  

This course is designed to guide graduate teacher candidates to critically examine local school culture and/or teaching practice, set reasonable and appropriate 21st Century goals for change, and plan/conduct an action research project to achieve identified objectives.

EED 511  Mathematics for Children  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Corequisite(s): EED 512, EED 513, and ECE 530.

Materials and methods in the teaching of elementary mathematics concepts and processes. EED 511 is cross-listed with SPE 555, and only one will count as credit.

EED 512  Science for Children  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Methods, materials, laboratory demonstration, and organization of science concepts and processes taught in the elementary grades. Taken in conjunction with EED 511, EED 513, and ECE 530.

EED 513  Curriculum Integration in Teaching Social Studies  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Corequisite(s): EED 511, EED 512, and ECE 530.

Methods and materials of teaching social studies in the elementary graduates.

EED 514  Practicum in Content Block  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Corequisite(s): EED 511, EED 512, and EED 513.

This course provides prospective teachers an opportunity to observe, analyze, and apply mathematics, science, and social studies concepts and theories in schools and classrooms.

EED 522  Classroom Assessment for Learning  (3)  

This course is designed to help elementary teachers gain an understanding of classroom assessment, current trends and issues involving classroom assessment, and how to use assessment to be a more effective teacher and enhance student learning. This course is cross-listed with ECE 507, and only one may be taken for credit.

EED 530  Methods for Language and Literacy Development  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Admission to Graduate Studies.

Corequisite(s): RDG 520, RDG 521, ECE 533.

Must meet Teacher Education Program eligibility. The purpose of this course is to provide information regarding methods, materials, and research findings related to langugage and literacy development of early childhood and elementary students.

EED 533  Enhancing Learning through Children's Literature  (3)  

Corequisite(s): EED 530, RDG 520 and RDG 521.

Techniques and strategies to utilize children's literature to enhance the elementary education curriculum. EED 533 is cross-listed with ECE 533 and only one course may be counted for credit.

EED 540  Curriculum Integration in Elementary Education  (3)  

Designed to examine the literacy needs of elementary students within the content areas of language arts, math, science, and social studies, as well as the literacy needs fo English Language Learners (ELL). Because literacy skills are so crucial to success in school, the course will focus on strategies and their application to the above content area.

EED 541  Teaching Mathematics  (3)  

Advanced course in materials and teaching techniques for improving math concepts and skills.

EED 543  Social Studies and Today's Learner  (3)  

Advanced course in materials and methods of teaching social studies.

EED 544  Teaching Science  (3)  

Problems in development of science program in the elementary school; facilitating children's learning of science & its concepts and attitudes.

EED 545  Teaching Language Arts  (3)  

Scope and sequence of total language arts program in the elementary school; individual research projects. EED 545 is cross-listed with RDG 545 and only one course may be counted for credit.

EED 548  Materials and Methods for the Multicultural Classroom  (3)  

Advanced course in materials and methods of teaching for the multicultural classroom.

EED 549  Teachers as Leaders in the Elementary Classroom  (3)  

Current teaching practices examined in scheduled seminars and then implemented in an elementary classroom setting. Online assignments will augment and correspond with practicum experiences. It is a requirement for all JSU students who are completing a practicum or internship to be covered by professional liability insurance during the time of the practicum in the amount of $1,000,000. Not open to students enrolled in Alternative Fifth-Year Teacher Certification or Ed.S. programs.

EED 550  Diversity in Today's Classroom  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Course provides information to educators, equipping them to work with ESL students, while incorporating curricular planning and instructional techniques specific to the diverse learner.

EED 554  Integrating STEM and STEAM Into Practice  (3)  

This advanced online course examines the underlying philosophies and foundations of the accomplished elementary science teacher.

EED 620  Mathematical Pedagogy for Elementary Teachers  (3)  

Examination of current issues and methods related to elementary mathematics.

EED 622  Education Research Methodology  (3)  

In-depth analysis of the methods and procedures of research in education.

EED 623  Trends and Issues in STEM Education  (3)  

Examination of current issues and methods related to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

EED 631  Teacher as Researcher/Issues and Trends in EED  (3)  

Exploration of current research and issues and trends in elementary education; review and comparison of selected teacher research projects, and examination of the concept and practice of teacher research as a strategy to build school collaboration and strengthen the professional role of teachers. EED 631 is cross-listed with ECE 631 and only one course may be counted for credit.

EED 642  Professional Publications in Elementary Education  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): EED 631.

Opportunity for students to develop and refine professional writing skills. EED 642 is cross-listed with ECE 642 and only one course may be counted for credit.

EED 643  Contemporary Social Studies for Elementary Classrooms  (3)  

Examination of current issues and methods related to Social Studies Education.

EED 644  Developing Publications in Elementary Education Trends  (3)  

Examination of current instruction, assessment, and best practices in Elementary Education.

Reading Specialist

RDG 520  Teaching Reading  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): RDG 540.

Corequisite(s): ECE 501, ECE 507, and RDG 521.

The purpose of this course is to provide information regarding methods, materials, and research findings concerned with beginning reading instruction for the elementary grades. Requires Teacher Education eligibility.

RDG 521  Practicum in Teaching Reading  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

Corequisite(s): RDG 520, ECE 501, and ECE 507.

Provides prospective teachers an opportunity to observe, analyze, and apply concepts and theories in schools and classrooms.

RDG 530  Methods and Materials for Reading: Teaching Students with Exceptionalities in the Inclusive Setting  (3)  

Requires Teacher Education Program Eligibility. The purpose of this course is to provide information regarding methods, materials, and research findings concerned with reading strategies for students with exceptionalities. The course is designed for general or special education classroom teachers and education professionals.

RDG 538  Teaching Reading in ECE  (3)  

Methods, materials and research findings concerned with beginning reading instruction emphasizing P-3.

RDG 540  Early Literacy  (3)  

Materials and methods of teaching literacy in early childhood. Foundations of literacy development including reading, writing, listening, spelling, and speaking will be emphasized.

RDG 542  Stategic Reading Across the Curriculum  (3)  

The purpose of this course is to provide instruction in methods and materials regarding strategic reading for the elementary grades with emphasison building expertise in literacy instruction, including traditional and new literacies across the curriculum. Simulations, scenarios, blogging, wiki posts, and refletion are an important component of this course.

RDG 543  Teaching Struggling Readers: Methods for Collaborative Education  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524, and SPE 554.

Corequisite(s): SPE 537 and 564.

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. This course provides teacher candidates with methods, materials, and research findings on the foundations of teaching reading for the elementary grades.

RDG 545  Teaching Language Arts  (3)  

Scope and sequence of total language arts program in the elementary school; individual research projects. EED 545 is cross-listed with RDG 545 and only one course may be counted for credit.

RDG 546  Multicultural Literature  (3)  

Using literature to increase cultural awareness can be an effective tool for teaching in the elementary classroom. Students will explore, analyze, and share literature that portrays history, customs, values, and/or languages of various cultural groups.

RDG 547  Diagnosing Reading Abilities  (3)  

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. Research in diagnosing reading abilities, handling current diagnostic tools, and construction of evaluation of instruments.

RDG 567  Improvement of Reading in Secondary Schools  (3)  

Teaching reading in subject matter areas and developmental reading for high school students. RDG 567 is cross-listed with ESE 567 and only one course may be counted for credit.

RDG 572  Assessment of Diagnosis in Reading  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): EED 542 or RDG 542.

Application of knowledge gained in course work; emphasis placed on using a variety of formal and informal assessment tools to determine the strengths and weaknesses of struggling readers while using this information to implement specialized instruction to enhance the student¿s literacy development; case study requires collection and interpretation of assessment data, planning, and implementation of remediation lessons for the struggling reader.

RDG 573  Intervention Strategies for Reading Instruction  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): EED 542 or RDG 542.

Examines research-based best practices in effective intervention strategies for students experiencing difficulties in reading; reading materials and programs will be examined and evaluated in terms of application for effective intervention instruction.

RDG 574  Practicum for Teachers of Reading  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): EED 542 or RDG 542 and a passing score on the appropriate PRAXIS II exam is required prior to taking this course.

Application of knowledge gained in course work; emphasis placed on providing literacy services in developmental reading or reading intervention programs at a variety of levels.

RDG 575  Internship in the Organization and Supervision of Reading Programs  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): EED 542 or RDG 542.

Application of knowledge gained in course work; emphasis placed on designing and implementing literacy programs, planning and providing professional development, providing leadership in literacy instruction and serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and the community. Must be completed at JSU.

RDG 624  Literary Research and Data Driven Applications  (3)  

Exploration of recent research in literacy development and instruction, identification of trends and patterns in research and findings.

Special Education

SPE 500  Survey Course in Special Education  (3)  

Foundations of Collaborative Education as well as various areas of exceptionality including cognitive impairments, behaviorally disordered, multiple disabled, learning disabled, gifted and talented, hearing impaired, visually impaired, autism spectrum disorder, speech and language disordered, and early education for students with disabilities.

SPE 509  Data Analysis K-12  (3)  

Use of technology to support collection, organization, and presentation of classroom assessment data. Emphasis on summarizing, describing, presenting, and interpreting data to facilitate decision-making for students with various disabilities.

SPE 512  Methods & Materials Mild Disabilities K-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 502.

Advanced discussion of how mild disabilities affect academics and behavior; current methods for teaching and training individuals from kindergarten through graduation.

SPE 520  Technology for SPE  (3)  

Specialized applications of classroom technology to support UDL and RTI for students with disabilities with diverse learning needs.

SPE 521  Collaborative Reading/Math Strategies  (3)  

Strategies for identifying problems and planning instruction to remediate reading and/or math problems.

SPE 522  Assessment of Special Populations  (3)  

Focuses on the evaluation process, related strategies and instruments designed to facilitate decision-making for students with various disabilities.

SPE 524  Methods and Strategies for Learning and Behavior  (3)  

Introduction of collaborative co-teaching models, strategies for creating an inclusive environment, and individual educational/instructional planning.

SPE 525  Collaborative Math Strategies  (3)  

Strategies for identifying problems and planning instruction to remediate math problems.

SPE 526  Methods of Autism Spectrum Disorder  (3)  

This is a weekly seminar that focuses on Autism Spectrum Disorder. It consists of a series of seminars on major topics related to ASD such as: historical timeline, diagnosis and assessment, advocacy, current research and statistics, behavioral interventions, classroom supports and services, transition and it covers the lifespan.

SPE 527  Methods and Materials Severe Disabilities K-12  (3)  

Methods for teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities including hands-on experiences, career education, transition, AAA assessment, and lesson planning to teach life skills.

SPE 528  Methods and Materials Mild Disabilities K-12  (3)  

Advanced discussion of how mild disabilities affect academics and behavior. Emphasis on current methods for teaching and training individuals from kindergarten through high school.

SPE 529  Collaborative Teaching for Secondary Classrooms  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 554 and SPE 524.

Corequisite(s): SPE 555, SPE 580.

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. This course is designed to provide teacher candidates with an understanding of collaborative and co-teaching models in the secondary classroom setting. Theories of neurodiversity, secondary course content standards, and student engagement techniques will be presented.

SPE 532  Methods and Strategies for Enrichment: Teaching Gifted Students in the Inclusive Classroom  (3)  

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. The purpose of this course is to provide an introduction to collaborative co-teaching models, theories of exceptionalities and methods for gifted enrichment. The course is designed for general or special education classroom teachers and education professionals.

SPE 533  Applied Behavior Analysis in SPE  (3)  

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. Practical approach to applied behavior management through demonstration and application of frequently employed models of classroom intervention.

SPE 535  Formative and Summative Assessment  (3)  

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. Use of technology to support collection, organization, and presentation of formative and summative classroom and student assessment data with emphasis on summarizing, describing, presenting, and interpreting data to facilitate decision-making for K-12 students with various disabilities.

SPE 536  Methods for Severe Disabilities  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524 and SPE 554.

Corequisite(s): SPE 565.

Teacher Candidates will develop plans and skills that allow them to teach and interact with individuals in need of ongoing support in more than one major life activity. This includes integration into community settings and learning to enjoy a quality of life comparable to other with less or no disabilities. Supporting skills for communication, self-care, independent living, employment, and self-sufficiency will also be addressed.

SPE 537  Collaborative Teaching  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524, and SPE 554.

Corequisite(s): RDG 543 and SPE 564.

This course provides teacher candidates with strategies for meeting the needs of students with mild disabilities in inclusive settings, including general and special education classrooms. Includes theories of collaboration, models of co-teaching, and response to intervention procedures. Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

SPE 551  Practicum in Mild Disabilities K-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): A passing score on the appropriate Praxis II, permission of instructor, successful completion of SPE 509, 510, 528, 520, 521, and 533.

Practical teaching experiences in all public school core general education curriculum areas, as well as communication, social behavior, and transition skills.

SPE 554  Medical, Legal, and Ethical Aspects of SPE  (3)  

Preparation of candidates for professionalism, advocacy, and knowledge of medical, legal, and ethical aspects of students with disabilities within the classroom settings.

SPE 555  Mathematics Strategies for Collaborative Special Education  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524 and 554.

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with materials and methods in the teaching of mathematics concepts and processes based on the Standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Common Core State Standards and the new "Standards-based" curricula. Specific strategies for struggling mathematics learners will be presented. SPE 555 is cross-listed with EED 511 and only one course will count as credit.

SPE 563  Practicum in Severe Disabilities K-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): A passing score on the appropriate Praxis II, permission of instructor, successful completion of SPE 509, 510, 528, 520, 521, and 533.

Practical teaching experiences with students who have intellectual and adaptive behavior scores in the significant cognitive disability range served in a self-contained classroom for students with severe disabilities.

SPE 564  Practicum in Mild Methods K-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524 and SPE 554.

Corequisite(s): SPE 537 and RDG 543.

This field experience provides teacher candidates opportunities to observe, analyze, and apply concepts and theories in the K-12 mild setting. Teacher candidates will integrate co-teaching, foundations reading, and principles of collaboration within the classroom environment. Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

SPE 565  Practicum in Severe Methods K-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524 and SPE 555.

Corequisite(s): SPE 536.

This clinical experience provides Teacher Candidates opportunities for application of theory and methods in severe education settings. Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility.

SPE 566  Practicum in Collaborative Special Education K-6  (3)  

Field experiences working with students in a special education setting K-6. In the field experiences, the candidate is required to collaborate with professionals to build successful learning experiences for special education students in mild or severe settings. The SPE practicum coursework and related field experiences will prepare candidates to teach in all core general education curriculum areas, as well as communication, social behavior, job competency, and life skills.

SPE 567  Practicum in Collaborative Special Education 6-12  (3)  

Field experiences working with students in a special education setting 6-12. In the field experiences, the candidate is required to collaborate with professionals to build successful learning experiences for special education students in mild or severe settings. The SPE practicum coursework and related field experiences will prepare candidates to teach in all core general education curriculum areas, as well as communication, social behavior, job competency, and life skills.

SPE 570  Action Research in SPE  (3)  

This course will be the culminating experience in the program. Candidates will conduct an action research project in their practicum/intership placement on either an individual student or the entire class. Candidates will be required to write up the research project for possible submission and present the project to the SPE Graduate Faculty.

SPE 580  Practicum in 6-12 Mild  (2)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300 or 500, SPE 524 and SPE 554.

Corequisite(s): SPE 529 and SPE 555.

Requires Teacher Education Program eligibility. This clinical experience provides Teacher Candidates opportunities to observe, analyze, and apply concepts and theories in collaborative settings. Teacher Candidates in this practicum will participate in Transition University along with appropriate school settings.

SPE 584  Practicum in Severe Disabilities, K-6  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 560, SPE 561, SPE 533, permission of the instructor, and a passing score on the appropriate PRAXIS II examination is required prior to taking this course.

Designed to provide 120-150 practicum hours applying previously learned skills in assessing and teaching students with severe disabilities of learning and behavior. Classroom placement will be in an accredited public school classroom for students with severe disabilities at the K-6 level. Offered Spring semester only.

SPE 585  Practicum in Severe Disabilities, 6-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 560, SPE 561, SPE 533, permission of the instructor, and a passing score on the appropriate PRAXIS II examination is required prior to taking this course.

Designed to provide 120-150 practicum hours applying previously learned skills in assessing and teaching students with severe disabilities of learning and behavior. Classroom placement will be in an accredited public school classroom for students with severe disabilities at the 6-12 level. Offered Spring semester only.

SPE 586  Practicum in Severe Disabilities  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 560 and SPE 561 or SPE 562, and a passing score on the appropriate PRAXIS II exam is required prior to taking this course. experience provides a vehicle for discussing current practical issues and teaching strategies as they apply to existing problems in the teacher's classroom setting.

Supervised classroom teaching experience through on-site observation, as well as related assignments and seminars for graduate students in an actual teaching situation; experience provides a vehicle for discussing current practical issues and teaching strategies as they apply to existing problems in the teacher's classroom setting.

SPE 617  Advanced Strategies for Students with Disabilities-Elementary Level  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300/500.

This course is designed to present specialist students with preparation in learning, reading, writing, note taking, math, social skills, content, and transition strategies for persons at the elementary level.

SPE 618  Advanced Strategies for Students with Disabilities-Secondary Level  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 300/500.

This course is designed to present specialist students with preparation in learning, reading, writing, note taking, math, social skills, content, and transition strategies for persons at the secondary level.

SPE 620  Curriculum Development Seminar in Special Education  (3)  

Individual student review and development of curriculum in special education field of interest; analysis of principles of early and present curricula and validity of prevailing practice.

SPE 624  Writing for Professional Publication  (3)  

Refine and develop professional writing skills.

SPE 661  Advanced Research and Practices of Severe Disabilities, K-6  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 560.

Advanced study of methodologies, materials, and management techniques for students with severe physical, mental, and medical developmental disabilities K-6th grade. The purpose is to enhance the capacity of teachers as creative decision makers who are committed to and capable of facilitating student learning in appropriate settings.

SPE 662  Advanced Research and Practices of Severe Disabilities, 6-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 560.

Advanced study of methodologies, materials, and management techniques for students with severe physical, mental, and medical developmental disabilities 6th-12th grade. The purpose is to enhance the capacity of teachers as creative decision makers who are committed to and capable of facilitating student learning in appropriate settings.

SPE 684  Advanced Practicum in Special Education Collaborative Teacher K-6  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 524, SPE 534, SPE 516, SPE 560, SPE 533, SPE 617, and a passing score on the appropriate Praxis II examination prior to beginning the practicum.

THis practicum is for EdS candidates who have a master's level teacher certification in an area other than Colaborative Teacher/Special Education. Time will be spent in both a mild to moderate classroom setting as well as a severe disabilities classroom at the K-6 level.

SPE 685  Adv Prac SPE Coll Teacher 6-12  (3)  

Prerequisite(s): SPE 525, SPE 534, SPE 516, SPE 560, SPE 533, and SPE 618 and a passing score on the appropriate Praxis II examination prior to beginning the practicum.

This practicum is for EdS candidates who have a master's level teacher certification in an area other than Collaborative Teacher/Special Education. Time will be spent in both mild to moderate classroom setting as well as a severe classroom at a 6-12 level.